A convenient-to-produce energy carrier that can be synthesized from renewable hydrogen is ammonia (NH3), as nitrogen can be drawn from ambient air and ammonia is a liquid at ambient temperatures. What are the pros and cons of ammonia as an energy carrier and might it solve some of the storage challenges associated with storing hydrogen?

Ammonia production for fertilizer is the second largest use of industrial hydrogen today after oil refining. About a fifth of the hydrogen produced today ends up as ammonia. Ammonia has advantages over hydrogen as an energy carrier in that it can be stored and...

Hydrogen advocates have proposed that we consider using hydrogen pipelines to wheel renewable energy long distances in lieu of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) high-voltage alternating current (HVAC). Is that idea feasible, and how might such a scheme compare in cost and efficiencies with electrical transmission lines?

The US has about 1,600 miles of hydrogen pipeline today, mostly along the Gulf Coast to service oil refiner hydrogen demand. Low concentrations of hydrogen can be mixed in the existing natural gas pipeline system for transport, and existing gas pipelines may be able...